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Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV)

Being a hybrid,it has both a petrol/diesel engine and a battery. But you can’t plug the car in to charge the battery.However,their small battery allows them to go a mile or so on battery power alone.The car will run on the battery at low speeds. When needs to go faster,the engine kicks in.

Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV)

A vehicle with both an electric and internal combustion engine; the electric and combustion engine can be in series or parallel. The vehicle has the ability to operate on electricity (typically short capacity compared to BEV) or combustible fuel (gasoline is the most common).

Fuel-Cell Electric Vehicle (FCEV)

An electric driven vehicle that generates electricity from an onboard fuel cell that converts chemical energy to electrical energy; modern FCEVs typically utilized hydrogen a zero-emission fuel. A small battery system can be used but is typically only charged by the on-board fuel cell.

Internal Combustion Engine (ICE)

Unlike BEV,PHEV and HEV,the term I        CE refers to the engine itself,rather than the type of car.Normal petrol and diesel cars have internal combustion engines.Petrol and diesel (fossil fuels) burned inside an ICE contribute to both air pollution and global warming.

Charging Level 1-Wall outlet charging

A standard outlet can potentially fully recharge an EV battery in 8–12 hours,though larger batteries.This level is often sufficient for overnight,home charging.Used for Home/Emergency charging with Typical household outlet(120V 1Phase AC 12-16Amps).

Charging Level 2-AC charging

Free-standing or hanging charging station units mediate the connection between power outlets and vehicles.Requires installation of charging equipment and often a dedicated 20–80 amp circuit,and may require utility upgrades.Well-suited for inside and outside locations,where cars park for only several hours at a time,or when homeowners seek added flexibility of use and a faster recharge(208-240V 1P 16-48A)(380V 3P 16-32A)

Charging Level 3-Direct Current Fast Chargers (DCFC)

Free-standing units;Enable rapid charging of EV battery to 80% capacity in as little as 30 minutes.Uses a 400 volt or higher circuit to provide 20 to 360 kilowatts of power. Fast chargers are well-suited for public,commercial and fleet settings. However,high hardware and installation costs will limit curbside deployments. Allows EV drivers to charge “on-the-go”like at a traditional gas station (380-480V 3Phase 43-192Kva/25-180KW TYP.)

Alternating Current

AC is often used in public charging stations and household outlets. The onboard charger (OC) capacity and charging station power both affect how quickly batteries charge. To put it simply,an EV battery can't charge faster than it can support. Even if the charging point’s power is greater than the OC capacity in this instance,your EV won’t charge any quicker since the OC capacity has set restrictions. Electric cars typically use 7 kW of batteries,while AC charging may accommodate up to 22 kW of charging power.


In particular in North America and Japan,the SAE J1772 connector,also known as the J Plug or Type 1 connector,is used for charging. The lt is equipped with five pins and is capable of charging up to 80 amp using a 240 volt input,providing a maximum power output of 19.2 kW for an EV charger. For Level 1 and 2 EV chargers,the J1772 connector is compatible with Single Phase AC charging. The drawback is that Type 1 connector does not have an automatic locking mechanism,such as the Type 2 (Mennekes) Connector used in Europe,which enables it to be used solely for Single Phase. Except for Tesla,which has its own proprietary charging standard,almost every North American electric vehicle or plug in hybrid vehicle will have a Type 1 charger. In addition,they provide an adapter that will allow Tesla drivers to use the J1772 charger. EV Connector Type-SAE J1772 (Type 1) Output Current Type-AC (Alternate Current) supply Input-120 Volts or 208/240 Volts (Single-phase only) Maximum Output Current-16 Amps (120 Volts)80 Amps (208/240 Volts) Maximum Output Power-1.92 kW(120 Volts)19.2 kw(208/240 Volts) EV Charging Level(s)-Level 1,Level 2 Primary Countries-USA,Canada,Japan


The charging standard used primarily in Europe is Type 2 connector,also known as the Mennekes connector. lt's seven pin configuration allows it to operate up to 32amps using the 400 volt output,giving a maximum power of 22 kilowatts. The type 2 connector supports single-phase and three-phase AC charging for Level 2 chargers. The plugs have openings on the side that allows them to lock into place automatically when connected to the EV for charging. The automatic locking between the plug and the EV prevents the charging cable from being removed during charging. EV Connector Type-Mennekes (Type 2) Output Current Type-AC (Alternate Current) supply input:230 Volts (Single-Phase) or 400 Volts (three.phase) Maximum output Current-32 Amps (230 Volts) 32 Amps (400 Volts) Maximum Output Power-7.6 kW(230 Volts)22 kW(400 Volts) EV Charging Level(s)-Level 2 Primary Countries-Europe,United Kingdom,Middle East,Africa.Australia


China developed its own charging system,referred to by its national standards as GB/T. There are two variations of GB/T plugs: one for AC charging and one for DC fast charging. The GB/T AC charging plug is single-phase,delivering up to 22 kW. While it looks the same as the Type 2 plug,don’t be fooled—its pins and receptors are reversed. The institution have released (GB/T20234-2006). This national standard specifies charging currents of 16A,32A,250A AC,and the connection classification method of 400A DC. Mainly draws on the standard proposed by the International Electrical technical Commission (IEC) in 2003,but this standard does not specify the number of connection pins,physical dimensions,and interface definitions of the charging interface. EV Connector Type-GB/T (AC) Output current Type-AC (Alternate Current) Supply Input-230 Volts (single phase) 380 Volt(three phase) Maximum output Current-32 Amps Maximum Output Power-7.4 -22kW EV Charging Level(s)-Level 2 Primary Countries-China Russian and other Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) country

Direct Current

Although 150 and 300-kW fast (rapid) chargers are also being deployed,50-kW superchargers are the most prevalent. Both the power of the charging station and the capacity of the EV’s charging socket determines the battery’s performance in DC chargers.

CCS (Combined Charging System) DC charging

The CCS (Combined Charging System) is very common,but it can be used for both DC and AC charging. The "2-in-1" plug is also called Combo 2 because of its dual function. The maximum power rate you can reach with this plug when charging with a direct current is 350 kW.The design of the CCS socket for this plug is pretty interesting. It basically looks like a type 2 socket with two additional pin holes below. Advantages of Combo Connector In the future,automakers can use a socket on their new models. Not only for the first generation of smaller basic AC connectors but also for the second generation of larger Combo Connectors. Combo Connector can provide DC and AC current,charging at two different speeds respectively. Disadvantages of Combo Connector In the fast charging mode of the Combo Connector,the charging station needs to provide a maximum voltage of 500 volts and a current of 200 amps.


CCS Type 1 (Combined charging System),or CCS Combo 1 or SAE J1772 Combo connector,combines the J1722 Type 1 plug with two high-speed Dc fast charging pins. CCS 1 is the DC fast charging standard for North America. lt can deliver up to500 amps and 1000 volts DC providing a maximum power output of 360 kW The Combined Charging System utilizes the same communication protocol as the SAE J1772 Type 1 connector. lt enables vehicle manufacturers to have one AC and DC charging port rather than two separate ports. Most EVs in North America now utilize a CCS 1 plug. Japanese automakers such as Nissan have transitioned from CHAdeMO to CCS 1 for all new models in North America. However,like the SAE J1772 Type 1 plug,Tesla has their proprietary charging standard for North America EV Connector Type-CCS 1 Output Current Type-DC (Direct Current) Supply input-480 Volts (three-phase) Maximum Output Current-500 Amps Maximum Output Power-360 kW Maximum Output Voltage-1000 Volts DC EV Charging Level(s)-Level 3 (DC fast charging) Primary Countries-USA,Canada,South Korea


The CCS Type 2 connector,also known as the CCS Combo 2,is the primary DC fast charging standard used in Europe. Like the Type 1 CCS,which combined an AC plug with two high-speed charging pins,the CCS 2 combines the Mennekes Type 2 plug with two additional high-speed charging pins. With the ability to provide up to 500amps and 1000 volts DC,a CCS 2 charger can also deliver a maximum power output of 360 kW. Unlike in North America,Tesla 3 and Y owners in Europe can charge their vehicles with a CCS Type 2 charging station,and Tesla S and X owners can use an adapter EV Connector Type-CCS 2 Output current Type-DC (Direct Current) Supply input-400 Volts (three-phase) Maximum Output Current-500 Amps Maximum Output Power-360 kW Maximum Output Voltage-1000 Volts DC EV Charging Level(s)-Level 3 (DC fast charging) Primary Countries-Europe,United Kingdom,Middle East,Africa,Australia

NACS-The Tesla Supercharger

Advantage of Tesla Superchargers Advanced technology and high charging efficiency. Disadvantages of Tesla Supercharger It is only applicable to Tesla models. Its standards are contrary to other national standards. The number of proprietary charging piles has increased slowly; if Tesla compromises and adopts a common standard charging protocol,it will affect the charging efficiency. The NACS standard can support both AC charging and DC fast charging. It uses a 5-pin layout. When using AC power,the NACS system can deliver up to 80 amps at 277 volts. With DC fast charging,NACS can provide up to 500 amps at up to 500 volts. However,the more common NACS configuration in residential setups provides up to 48 amps of current at 240 volts. previously named “Tesla Super Charger," for both Ac and DC charging. The NCAS connector can deliver up to250 kW and is only compatible with Tesla;The NACS connector has a single button located on the top center of the handle. When you depress the switch,the connector emits a UHF signal. When the connector locks,the signal commands the vehicle to retract the latch holding the connector in place. When the connector isn't locked,the signal commands the nearby vehicle to open the door covering the inlet. The Tesla Supercharger connector differs between European and North American versions of electric cars. EV Connector Type-NACS Tesla Output Current Type-AC(Alternate Current)/DC(Direct Current) Supply input-480 Volts (three-phase) Maximum Output Current-48 Amps (AC)-400 Amps (DC) Maximum Output Power-Up to 250 kW Maximum Output Voltage-480 Volts DC EV Charging Level(s)-Level2/Level 3 (DC fast charging) Primary Countries-USA,Canada

Non-Tesla supercharger

Tesla made concessions in Europe and adopted CCS2 for their vehicles in the continent. At the same time,Tesla also offered a CCS to the Tesla proprietary plug adapter,allowing Tesla drivers outside of Europe to charge at non-Tesla charging stations. But things have evolved further. In November 2021,Tesla began opening up their network to non-Tesla cars.


The CHAdeMO connector is a DC fast-charging standard initially developed by Japanese automakers and released before CCS. lt can charge EVs up to 400 amps providing a maximum power output of 400 kW. To reach the 400 kW output,any CHAdeMO charging stations would require liquid-cooled cables similar to the CCS types. No surprise to see that CHAdeMO is the preferred standard for DC fast charging in Japan. Even so,Japanese auto manufacturers are adapting models to CCS connectors for North American and European markets,so we will likely see fewer CHAdeMO chargers in markets outside of Japan as time progresses.         The main difference between CCS and CHAdeMO is that CCS connectors allow carmakers to fit only one EV charging port,which can accept Ac and DC charging However,with CHAdeMO,you require a separate charging port for AC,resulting in two charging ports on the vehicle. EV Connector Type-CHAdeMO Output Current Type-DC(Direct Current) Supply input-400 Volts (three-phase) Maximum Output Current-400 Amps Maximum output Power-400 kW EV Charging Level(s)-Level 3 (DC fast charging) Primary Countries-Japan (older model in use globally,japan automaker)


In 2011,China introduced the GB/T20234-2011 recommended standard,replacing part of the content in GB/T20234-2006,which stipulates: AC rated voltage does not exceed 690V,frequency 50Hz,rated current does not exceed 250A; DC rated voltage Does not exceed 1000V,and the rated current does not exceed 400A. EV Connector Type-GB/T (DC) Output current Type-(DC Direct Current) Supply Input-380 Volts Maximum output Current-250 Amps Maximum Output Power-237.5 kw EV Charging Level(s)-Level 3 (DC fast charging) Primary Countries-China Russian and other Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) country

The difference between single-phase and three-phase power

In electricity,a phase refers to the distribution of a load,and single-phase power is a two-wire alternating current (ac) power circuit. There is a more powerful alternative known as three-phase power. The key difference between single-phase vs. three-phase is that a three-phase power supply better accommodates higher loads. To describe it less technically: A three-phase power supply can transmit three times as much power as a single-phase power supply. Turning the lights on at home? Single-phase power will do. A commercial dishwasher used in restaurants? Three-phase power is usually required.

What is an EV charging cable?

Some Type 2 EV charging station is socket model.These EV Charging stations don’t have a tethered cable like traditional EV charging stations but instead,rely on the EV driver bringing their own EV cable specific to their type of EV.A charging cable allows you to charge your electric vehicle from any home or public/workplace charger (most of which do not have a tethered cable attached). EV charger cables are designed to safely deliver power from a power source to your electric car. Some charging stations come with cables attached (these are called tethered charging stations) and others require you to bring your own. Safe to say,charging cables are an essential part of charging an electric vehicle. The are several key benefits which support this type of EV Charging infrastructure with the main points being less wear and tear which comes on the tethered cable,Universal EV Charging for all EV’s and the capability for three-phase 22kW EV charging.         So there you have it,a rundown on the different types of EV charging cables,what the differences are and which one is right for your EV. Remember to give consideration to the length of the cable and how you will mostly be using it. For most people,the 5m cable is the best option as it gives them maximum flexibility and portability,whereas for others who might own multiple EV’s then a longer EV cable such as 7m or 10m might be a better option.

What does a connection in an EV charger do?

By attaching the electric battery to an exterior socket,it may be recharged. EV Charging Connectors are the terminal connections that are linked to the electric car and the charging cable,respectively,to enable charging.

Why are there two cords on EV chargers?

These cables connect to your EV on one end and a regular domestic outlet on the other. The cable is equipped with an in-cable control and protection device (IC-CPD),which is in charge of controlling and communicating with the EV while also protecting the regular wall plug.

Are all EV charging cables the same?

Not at all,EV charging cables come in four forms or “modes”,each used for a certain type of charging. It may get slightly confusing,seeing that the mode does not necessarily correlate to the “level” of charging. In this section,we aim to unpack the difference between Mode 1,Mode 2,Mode 3,and Mode 4 charging cables and determine which is best suited for what type of charging. EV charging cable types Untethered Fast AC chargers have a socket on the charger,so a charging cable is required to connect between the charger and the car. These can be home,workplace,or public chargers. All untethered fast chargers have a Type 2 socket at the charger end. Depending on your car’s socket type,you should purchase a “Type 1 to Type 2” or “Type 2 to Type 2” cable.

Mode 1 charging cables

With a Mode 1 cable,you simply connect a light electric vehicle (e-bikes,scooters,but not a car) to a standard AC socket-outlet using an extension cord and standard plug. As a result,there is no communication between the vehicle and the charging point,meaning there are no special safety systems or shock protection. This type of charging is useful for light electric vehicles like e-bikes and scooters,but it’s not considered safe for electric cars and is prohibited in many parts of the world.

Mode 2 charging cables

When you purchase an EV,it usually comes with what’s known as a Mode 2 charging cable. These cables plug into your EV on one end and enable the connection to an ordinary 3-pin domestic socket. Some Mode 2 charging cable are more advanced and offer connectors suitable for different CEE industrial sockets. Mode 2 charging cables come with an In-Cable Control and Protection Device (IC-CPD) which is responsible for the control of the charging process and communication between the electrical power source and the EV. You can use this cable to plug it into a 3-pin domestic socket and charge without a charging station. While this charging method is undoubtedly convenient,charging using this method can take a long time as most household outlets only deliver up to 2.3 kW of power. It can also be dangerous if handled incorrectly,as it can easily overload your home’s electrical circuit. Therefore,we only recommend using this charging cable if no other options are available. Find out more about how to charge your electric car safely.

Mode 3 charging cables

Mode 3 cables are currently the most common way to charge an EV across the globe. A Mode 3 charging cable connects your vehicle to a dedicated EV charging station—like those found in workplaces and offices,homes and residential locations,and commercial and public parking lots. These cables are the standard across the world for public and home EV charging using a dedicated charging station,and usually connect to Type 1 or Type 2 charging plugs.

Mode 4 charging cables

Mode 4 charging cables are designed to handle higher power outputs needed for fast charging. Also known as Level 3 charging or DC charging,fast charging can significantly reduce charging times,allowing you to charge an EV in minutes instead of hours. However,as this type of charging transfers much more power directly to the battery,the cables must be permanently connected to the charging station,are a bit heavier,and sometimes even are liquid-cooled,and to handle the excess heat generated by the higher power output. *Where Mode 1,Mode 2,and Mode 3 charging cables can safely deliver alternating current (AC) to the vehicle,Mode 4 charging cables,are designed to transfer direct current (DC) straight to your battery which enables much faster charging times. If you want to learn more about the difference between AC and DC charging,read our dedicated article on that topic here.

16A or 32A Charging Cable?

Most modern car chargers charge at 32A. Some smaller chargers charge at 16A. 32A Charging Cables are compatible with 16A chargers,so it is more cost effective to purchase a 32A cable. Smartly only manufactures 32A cables for this reason.


What length do you need your Charging Cable to be? The answer is dependent on your needs,for example: How close do you park to the charger? Is the cable supplied by your EV manufacturer too short? Is your driveway long and narrow and a longer charging cable would be easier than swapping cars around? Do you want a shorter cable for when you are out and about using Public Car Chargers? Do you have a couple of EVs in the driveway and need a longer cable to reach both? Is it easier or cheaper to install your charger around the side of the house and get a longer charging cable? Whatever your requirements,we can help. Shorter is easier to store but longer can reach further. Our cables are made to order,so we offer lengths from 3m to 22ft. to 10m.

Straight or Coiled?

Straight or coiled is operational Straight cables are easier to handle and store. Coiled Cables at shorter lengths sit off the ground,so potentially stay cleaner.


Charging cables are available in many colours,and it is really a personal preference. Smartly offers cables in two colours,to cater for most tastes – Green and electric blue. Green is used to stand out - its high visibility helps when trip-hazard safety is a concern.

7kW Single-Phase or 22kW Three-Phase Cable?

Household have a single-phase (230V) supply,which require a 7kW single-phase charger with a single-phase cable to connect to the car. Public or workplace chargers can have a three-phase (380V or higher) supply. Type 1 cables are only available in single-phase,so if your car has a Type 1 socket it can only accept single-phase. Type 2 cables can be single or three-phase. A 22kW three-phase charging cable is compatible with both a 7kW single-phase supply and a 22kW three-supply. So,if you have a 7kW single-phase home charger,you could use a 22kW three-phase charging cable,which would also be compatible with public 22kW three-phase chargers. It allows you to get the quickest charge time possible when at public chargers and saves buying two cables! It is worth noting that the maximum charge speed is determined by your vehicle’s on-board charger (the charger built into the car)

Adapters for the Charger

A charging cable will allow you to charge your car battery wherever you find a charger. If there are no charging points in the area where you travel,a mobile charging station will come handy. Simply plug it into a socket and connect it to your car with a cable. The only thing is that finding a suitable socket might be quite tricky. Most mobile chargers come with a CEE red plug. If you haven’t got a corresponding socket,keep calm and look for adapters. With them,you can connect your mobile charger to one of the following sockets: multiple domestic plugs (household power outlets) CEE blue 16 A (camping plug) CEE red 16/32 A (three-phase current) - depending on the plug of your charger We suggest you get an adapter set. An adapter set 11 kW or 22 kW allows you to be ready to go camping,spend some time in your holiday house or charge your car while visiting friends.

Employee Recruitment

Having EV charging available at the workplace can help signify a company’s commitment to environmental stewardship,and to potential employees that own or plan on owning an EV.

Increased Customers and tenants

For commercial buildings or offices,having EV chargers installed is an effective way to attract new building tenants. In the case of buildings with retail,having EV chargers can help attract EV owners who choose to shop at locations that enable them also to charge their vehicles.

Employee benefits and improved retention

Providing free EV charging access to employees,similar to providing free parking,can be an addition to employees’ compensation or benefit package.

Sustainability Goals or Building Certification

For companies seeking to improve or maintain a positive environmental image,providing EV charging at the workplace is an effective strategy to encourage more sustainable transportation alternatives for their employees. Also,the charging stations can be used towards achieving sustainable or environmental building certification

Generate Revenue

Eligible site host can recover capital and operational costs through the use of the charging station itself. This includes user fees and/or claiming credits through the Low Carbon Fuel Standard program;Adding a station can also attract customers by providing an amenity and contributing to an organization’s reputation on sustainability.

Support Customers and Clientele

Site hosts can track and monitor how often and how long EV drivers are accessing their property and using an EV charging station. Evaluating usage trends can support internal business planning for when to install new stations and support proactive maintenance efforts to ensure a reliable charging experience for drivers.

EV charging can become a grid asset If managed properly

Not a liability. Left unmitigated,EV charging could create potential challenges for the electric distribution systems in United States and Germany. However,if properly managed,EV charging will not adversely impact grid operations. Managed EV charging instead could enhance the flexibility and reliability of the grid while reducing fuel costs for EV drivers,avoiding the need for utility distribution system upgrades,and integrating low-carbon electricity generation resources. Experience from other jurisdictions with relatively high levels of EV adoption demonstrates that accommodating EV load in residential settings has not been a significant challenge for distribution utilities.

Range security or Range Extension

Access to workplace charging can effectively reduce the daily commute between charging facilities for EV owners with home charging. The ability to charge at work also provides additional time for an EV to fully charge if it possesses a large battery pack that is not able to fully charge in the evening at home,and enable the EV owner to have a fully charged vehicle as they leave the office to start their evening or weekend.


Home charging provides the EV owner with an easily accessible source of electricity for their vehicle. For owners that typically have their vehicle at home,it provides them with the opportunity to easily charge their vehicle daily or as required without the need to go to charging stations or contend with queues.

Increases the Profile of EVs

For commercial buildings or offices,having EV chargers installed is an effective way to attract new building tenants. In the case of buildings with retail,having EV chargers can help attract EV owners who choose to shop at locations that enable them also to charge their vehicles.

Low costs

The home electricity provides one of the most cost-effective means of charging an EV since there is no need to add a peak and off to the electricity cost,as is the case with charging stations owned and operated by others.

EV Ecosystem

EV charging at home and workplace results in a range of benefits for all entities involved in the value chain – the utility,EV user,charging host/provider and other stakeholders
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